Grammaticalization function the procedure of go from a fully fledged lexical product in order to good grammatical morpheme over amounts of time
16 tu This new REFLEXIVE PREFIX Inside the ZULU – A TYPOLOGICAL Position Sonja Age. Bosch On this page I will have a look at the new root of your own reflexive prefix within the Zulu, paying extra attention towards procedure of grammaticalization by which lexemes end up as grammatical formatives. Since reflexivization in some Bantu dialects could well be opposed, this article have been around in the form of an excellent typological studies. Within the Lehmann s () conversation of the phenomena which are commonly referred to as reflexive, it is interesting to notice that he assumes five kinds of reflexives, specifically 0) autophoric nouns which can be average nouns instance system, breath, heart, lead one ple, inside the Sanscrit the fresh new noun dtman definition inhale, soul, plus Basque, brand new noun burua definition head, are accustomed to display the equivalent of English thinking. Autophoric nouns utilized as the reflexives usually are followed by a beneficial possessive pronoun, such as another analogy of Vedic: Vedic (1) bdlam dadhana dtmani fuel:acc place:part getting electricity for the themselves (ii) reflexive nouns which happen to be nouns declaring the meaning mind and nothing otherwise, including the German selbst me personally and Finnish itse while the portrayed on pursuing the advice: 344
17 German (2) Ich komme selbst I am upcoming me Finnish (3) Halu-at-ko lipu-t itse-lle-lorsque? want-2.sg-int ticket-acc.pl mind-all-poss.2.sg How would you like the latest passes on your own? Within the languages particularly Finnish, Hungarian and you can Turkish reflexive nouns get possessive affixes, whilst in almost every other languages such Italian language or even the Love languages, such nouns aren’t generally in addition to possessive pronouns. (iii) reflexive pronouns that have the key aim of it comes back to the topic, including the Italian language sich inside: Italian language (4) Sie waschen sich He or she is laundry on their own (iv) verbal reflexives which can be verb affixes proving that the action for some reason impacts the subject, like in next advice: Swahili (5) a-li-ji-ona SBJ.REFL-pick he spotted themselves Turkish (6) focuk yika-n-di kid tidy-refl-through the son washed himself Lehmann () stresses that the borders between the categories are water and you may says these particular five types of reflexive aspects are now actually towards the a measure out of growing grammaticalization.
To put it differently, one could discover that it as a good continuum off transform that feel illustrated the following: 345
18 Lexical item Grammatical * morpheme Lehmann (ff) will bring instances in various languages to show the changes which have took place or will still be happening from one class so you’re able to the next. The procedure of changes is affirmed by the Faltz () who, with regard to his morphological aplikacje randkowe ifnotyounobody difference in a few fundamental style of reflexives, specifically NP-reflexives that may include an affordable morpheme acting as lead of your reflexive noun statement, and you can spoken reflexives, composed of reflexive pronouns which are cliticized onto the verb, remarks: Languages could possibly get change from one rod into almost every other, indeed, particularly movement is fundamentally about NP-reflexive rod for the verbal reflexive rod. Into the Zulu reflexiveness is realized by means of an effective prefix hence individually precedes new verb stalk. New reflexive prefix try invariable in form, for example it’s a great morphological contour and therefore remains ongoing no matter what the category to which their antecedent belongs. This is demonstrably depicted about adopting the examples for the Zulu: (7a) Umfana wazishaya brand new-child the guy-themselves strike the son struck themselves (7b) Intombazane izibona esibukwini the latest-girl she-herself-find in-mirror This lady notices herself about echo Within these advice -zi- is the reflexive morpheme as well as the strategies off struck and determine is actually brought right back through to new particular grammatical sufferers, that is, child and lady. It is interesting one into the generative education, a serious sense is established into the root design off phrases that contains reflexives, specifically NP1 – V – NP1. On top, such as a homes is actually ungrammatical from the Bantu languages if your a few NPs is actually co-referential and you can the same in form, age.grams. (8) *USipho wakhohlisa usipho * Sipho duped Sipho Inside Zulu such as for instance a sentence is established grammatical of the installation out-of a good reflexive prefix on verb and you can the fresh new removal of one’s co-referential noun. age.grams. 346